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The elbow is usually the connection between the upper arm and forearm, which includes both the elbow joint and the surrounding tissue structures. The elbow joint, formed from the lower end of the upper arm bone and the upper ends of the ulna and spoke, makes a significant contribution to the enormous mobility of the arms by not only allowing the arm to bend and stretch, but also to rotate it. If you take a closer look, the elbow joint can be divided into three parts - the upper arm-elbow joint (hinge joint), the upper arm-spoke joint (ball joint) and the proximal elbow-spoke joint (wheel joint). This surrounds a relatively large joint capsule.
In the area of the elbow, there are numerous ligaments (for example, the elbow sideband or the spoke sideband) and muscle groups that serve to move and stabilize the joint. Elbow flexors and extensors are essentially the muscles of the upper arm, such as the biceps and triceps. In addition to the muscles, ligaments and vision, numerous nerve tracts (e.g. radial nerve, ulnar nerve) and blood vessels also run through the narrow structures in the area of the elbow. Therefore, impairment at the muscular level can easily lead to further symptoms. For example, if muscle tension is shown as a result of repeated incorrect loading, this may pinch a nerve and result in discomfort in the nerve supply area. In addition to elbow pain, forearm pain or wrist pain and sensations such as tingling in the limbs can also occur. A typical example is the so-called ulnar gutter syndrome. However, pain and discomfort can also be observed in connection with compressions of the blood vessels.
Diseases resulting from repeated incorrect loads are relatively common in the area of the elbow. The symptoms are described with names like "tennis elbow" or "golfer's elbow", even if they often do not arise during sports but when working on the computer. However, the elbow joint can also be affected by other diseases such as an inflammation of the joint or arthritis. In addition, signs of wear in the form of arthrosis are often the cause of complaints in the area of the elbow. Increased mechanical loads can also cause a painful bursitis, which is noticeable in elbow pain and a significant swelling of the elbow. The elbow can also be acutely damaged by external force, for example in the event of a fall or accident. Fractures, ruptures or dislocations of the joint are possible consequences here. (fp)